Jacks, Laurence Pearsall
  • British Unitarian who believed in resurrection of Christ
  • founder and editor of The Hibbert Journal
  • principal of Manchester College and Oxford.
Jacob, Henry
  • Congregational Puritan
  • part of Brownist movement
  • founded first Congregational church in England.
James, John Angell
  • British Congregational pastored one church for 50 years
  • Wrote The Christian Father's Present to His Children.
James, William
William James

William James

  • professor at Harvard
  • pragmatist.
  • Wrote
    • Pragmatism
    • A Pluralistic Universe
    • Essays in Radical Empiricism
    • The Will to Believe and Other Essays
    • The Meaning of Truth
    • Selected Papers in Philosophy
    • The Varieties of Religious Experience
  • Regarding his theory of knowledge:
    • Like the later existentialists, James held that the philosopher's realm is the "world of concrete personal experiences," where the pragmatic method applies, rather than the world of abstract ideas (where speculation is encouraged).
    • "The pragmatic method is a method of settling metaphysical disputes that otherwise might be interminable."
    • "There can be no difference in abstract truth that doesn't express itself in a difference in concrete fact."
    • Metaphysical disputes are settled by considering the practical (i.e., observable) difference which it would make to the individual if one or the other alternative were true.
    • "The true is the name of whatever proves itself to be good in the way of belief."
    • "Truth happens to an idea; it becomes true, is made true by events."
  • Regarding his theory of reality:
    • Reality consists in many "reals" as experienced in a loosely related ("strung along") rather than rigidly structured ("blocked out") universe; it is a "pluriverse."
    • These reals include a "real God" and relate to each other externally as a part of the "process of becoming."
    • Reality (including God) is "unfinished," "in the making."
    • Consciousness is not an entity but a function in experience. "That function is knowing."

Jansen, Cornelius
  • Flemish Roman Catholic theologian
  • defended Augustinian predestination
  • began Jansenists
Jasper, John
John Jasper

John Jasper

  • Black US Baptist preacher
  • born as a slave.

Jaspers, Karl
Karl Jaspers

Karl Jaspers

  • German psychiatrist turned existential philosopher
  • Three areas of existence: Object, Existence, Divine
  • wrote
    1. Man in the Modern Age
    2. The Origin and Goal of History
    3. The Perennial Scope of Philosophy

Jay, William
  • British Congregational preacher.
  • Wrote his autobiography.
Jefferson, Charles Edward
Charles Jefferson

Charles Jefferson

  • US Congregational pastor concerned with social issues.

Jerome (of Prague)
(c 340-420)


  • translated Greek NT into Latin Vulgate.

Jewel, John
John Jewel

John Jewel

  • popular Reformation preacher

Joad, Cyril Edwin Mitchinson
  • philosopher
  • professor at Birbeck College, London
  • wrote
    1. Decadence: a Philosophical Inquiry
    2. Matter, Life and Value
    3. The Recovery of Belief
  • Realist metaphysics
John of Antioch
  • Patriarch of Antioch.
John of Damascus
(c 675-749)
John of Damascus

John of Damascus

  • Last of the great Eastern Church Fathers
  • wrote Fount of Wisdom
  • allegorical preacher

John of the Cross
John of the Cross

John of the Cross

  • Spanish Carmelite monk
  • Christian mystic
  • wrote Dark Night of the Soul
  • Spain's foremost poet.

John of Salisbury
John of Wessel
(c 1420-1489)
  • German theologian
  • member of Brethren of the Common Life
  • died in prison after being convicted of heresy and after recanting
  • emphasized authority of Scripture
  • opposed priestly celibacy and sale of indulgences
  • denied transubstantiation.
Johnson, Gustaf Frederick
  • US Free church and Covenant church preacher.
Jonas, Justus
Justus Jonas

Justus Jonas

  • German Reformer
  • hymnwriter
  • associate of Luther.

Jones, Edgar DeWitt
Edgar DeWitt Jones

Edgar DeWitt Jones

  • US Disciples of Christ pastor
  • wrote The Royalty of the Pulpit.

Jones, Eli Stanley
  • US Methodist missionary to India
  • devotional writer.
Jones, Griffith
Griffith Jones

Griffith Jones

  • Welsh Episcopal preacher who established many charity schools.

Jones, Henry
Henry Jones

Henry Jones

  • British professor at Bangor, St. Andrews and Glasgow
  • wrote
    1. A Faith that Enquires
    2. Idealism as a Practical Creed
  • Absolute Idealism

Jones, John Daniel
  • Welsh Congregational preacher.
Jones, Robert ("Bob") Reynolds, Sr.
Bob Jones

Bob Jones

  • US Methodist evangelist
  • founded Bob Jones University

Jones, Rufus
Rufus Jones

Rufus Jones

  • US Quaker teacher, writer, and preacher.

Jones, Samuel Porter
Samuel Jones

Samuel Jones

  • US Methodist evangelist
  • never attended college
  • supported Prohibition
  • known as the "Moody of the South."

Jowett, John Henry
John Henry Jowett

John Henry Jowett

  • US Presbyterian/Congregational preacher.

Julian of Eclanum
(c 380-455)
Jung, Carl Gustav
Carl Jung

Carl Jung

  • psychiatrist in Zurich
  • Positivist
  • Naturalist
  • wrote
    1. Modern Man in Search of a Soul
    2. Psychology of the Unconscious

Justin Martyr
(c 100-165)
Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr

  • Christian apologist
  • Christianity is highest concept of Greek philosophy
  • martyred in Rome (thus his name)