Mabie, H. C.
  • Southern Baptist preacher.
MacAlpine, John
  • Scottish Dominican
  • influenced by Luther
  • became Lutheran pastor in Denmark.
MacArthur, Robert S.
  • Canadian Baptist pastor in one church in NY for 41 years.
Macartney, Clarence E.
  • US Presbyterian
  • great topical and biographical preacher
  • a conservative leader in fundamentalist-modernist controversy.
  • Wrote The Greatest Texts of the Bible
MacBean, Angus
  • Scottish pastor
  • imprisoned for opposition to state church.
Macdonald, George
George Macdonald

George Macdonald

  • Scottish theologian
  • wrote fantasy stories.

Mach, Ernst
Ernst Mach

Ernst Mach

  • Science professor at Graz, Prague, Vienna
  • wrote Popular Scientific Lectures
  • Positivist
  • Naturalist

Machen, J. Gresham
J. Gresham Machen

J. Gresham Machen

  • Conservative US Presbyterian theologian
  • taught at Princeton; left with Van Til, Allis, and Wilson to form Westminster
  • defrocked for insubordination
  • leading founder of Orthodox Presbyterian Church
  • effectively destroyed liberalism with his book Christianity and Liberalism (1923).
  • Wrote a Greek textbook, New Testament Greek for Beginners (1923), used in most Bible colleges and seminaries.
  • Also wrote
    1. Christian Faith in the Modern World (1936)
    2. The Christian View of Man (1937)
    3. God Transcendent (1949)
    4. The Origin of Paul's Religion (1921)
    5. New Testament Introduction
    6. The Virgin Birth of Christ (1930)
    7. What is Faith? (1925)

Machiavelli, Niccolo
Niccolo Machiavelli

Niccolo Machiavelli

Mackenzie, Lachlan
  • Scottish Presbyterian preacher
Mackintosh, Hugh Ross
  • Scottish theologian
  • taught at New College, University of Edinburgh
  • moderate liberal
  • introduced German scholarship to England
  • held a kenotic theory of incarnation
  • against penal-substitution theory of atonement
Maclaren, Alexander
Alexander Maclaren

Alexander Maclaren

  • British Baptist pastor
  • first President of Baptist World Alliance
  • Wrote After the Resurrection.

MacLaren, Ian
MacLaurin, John
Maclean, John Jr.
John Maclean, Jr.

John Maclean, Jr.

MacLennan, David A.
  • US Presbyterian taught homiletics.
Macleod, Norman
  • Church of Scotland preacher
  • pastored in Glasgow for his last 21 years.
Macquarrie, John
  • wrote contemporary theology book: 20th Century Religious Thought: The Frontiers of Philosophy and Theology, 1900-1970.
MacRae, Allan
Allan MacRae

Allan MacRae

  • professor at Westminster
  • president at Faith Theological Seminary and Biblical Theological Seminary
  • involved in Presbyterian schisms
  • an editor of New Scofield Reference Bible
  • helped translate NIV
  • wrote The Gospel of Isaiah.

Magee, William C.
  • Irish protestant preacher
Maier, Walter A.
Walter A. Maier

Walter A. Maier

  • US Lutheran
  • radio preacher on "The Lutheran Hour"
  • spent one hour for every minute of his sermon
  • taught Hebrew and OT at Concordia Seminary

Maimonides, Moses
Moses Maimonides

Moses Maimonides

  • Jewish philosopher

Malebranche, Nicholas
Nicholas Malebranche

Nicholas Malebranche

Malinowski, Bronislaw
Bronislaw Malinowski

Bronislaw Malinowski

  • Cultural anthropologist

(c 216-277)
  • Persian philosopher
  • combined Persian, Christian, and Buddhist ideas to form Manichaeism a dualistic view
Manning, Henry Edward
Henry Edward Manning

Henry Edward Manning

  • British Roman Catholic cardinal

Manson, Thomas Walter
  • British
  • taught at University of Manchester
  • emphasized on life and teachings of Jesus
Marcel, Gabriel
Gabriel Marcel

Gabriel Marcel

  • French Christian existentialist philosopher
  • wrote Homo Viator

(c 110-c 160)
  • Defined canon of Scripture
  • heretic
  • God of the OT is different from God of the NT
  • followers called Marcionites
  • Those who hold that the God of the New Testament is different from the God of the Old Testament.
Marcus Aurelius
Marett, Robert Ranulph
Robert Marett

Robert Marett

  • anthropology professor at Oxford
  • wrote The Threshold of Religion
  • origin of religion not naturalistic or metaphysical
  • concentrated on a psychological analysis of religion
  • Mana

Maritain, Jacques
Jacques Maritain

Jacques Maritain

  • French philosopher
  • led Neo-Thomists
  • wrote
    1. The Degrees of Knowledge
    2. La Philosophie bergsonienne

Marshall, Daniel
  • missionary to Indians
  • brother-in-law of Stearns
  • helped organize Georgia Baptist Association
Marshall, Peter
Peter Marshall

Peter Marshall

  • US Scottish Presbyterian manuscript preacher

Marshall, Stephen
  • British Presbyterian Puritan preacher
Martin of Tours
(c 335-400)
Martin of Tours

Martin of Tours

  • founded Gallican church
  • defended Nicene Creed

Martin, Samuel
  • British Congregational pastor
  • built Westminster Chapel which he pastored for 37 years
Martineau, James
James Martineau

James Martineau

  • British Unitarian preacher

Marty, Martin
Martin Marty

Martin Marty

  • Lutheran edited A Handbook of Christian Theologians with Dean Peerman

Martyr, Justin
(c 100-165)
Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr

  • Christian apologist
  • Christianity is highest concept of Greek philosophy
  • martyred in Rome (thus his name)

Marx, Karl
Karl Marx

Karl Marx

  • German social philosopher
  • wrote Das Kapital
  • used Hegel's dialectical view of history to create dialectical materialism
  • father of communism

Mason, John Mitchell
John Mitchell Mason

John Mitchell Mason

  • US Presbyterian and Reformed preacher.

Massillon, Jean Baptiste
  • French Roman Catholic preacher.
  • says religion is a purely psychological phenomenon.
  • It is "the childlike condition of humanity."
  • Consciousness of God is "self-consciousness, and knowledge of God is self-knowledge" (Feuerbach).
  • Also see
Mather, Cotton
Cotton Mather

Cotton Mather

  • US Congregational
  • Puritan
  • graduated from Harvard at age 15
  • preached (in Boston) on social, political, and personal issues
  • oldest son of Increase Mather
  • opposed decline of Puritan Theocracy
  • advocated Salem witch trials
  • wrote
    1. Magnalia Christi Americana
    2. Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcraft and Possessions

Mather, Increase
Increase Mather

Increase Mather

  • US Congregational
  • son of Richard Mather
  • President of Harvard
  • preached 62 years in Boston
  • memorized his sermons
  • studied 16 hours a day
  • advocated Half-Way Covenant
  • wrote
    1. A Brief History of the Wars With the Indians
    2. An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences

Mather, Richard
Richard Mather

Richard Mather

  • Congregational pastor
  • father of Increase Mather
  • ousted by Archbishop Laud
  • pastor in Dorchester, Mass.
  • advocated Half-Way Covenant
  • wrote Bay Psalm Book.

Matheson, George
George Matheson

George Matheson

  • Church of Scotland
  • blind preacher
  • wrote hymn "O Love That Wilt Not Let Me Go."

Mathews, Shailer
Shailer Mathews

Shailer Mathews

  • Baptist theologian
  • taught at University of Chicago and turned it liberal
  • Christianity was a religious social movement
  • wrote
    1. Contributions of Science to Religion
    2. The Faith of a Modernist
    3. The Growth of the Idea of God
    4. The Social Teaching of Jesus

Matthew, Edward
Matthew, Theobald
  • Irish Roman Catholic preacher.
Matthews, Mark A.
Mark A. Matthews

Mark A. Matthews

  • US Presbyterian preacher
  • fundamentalist leader
  • promoted moral issues

Maurice, John Frederick Denison
  • Anglican theologian
  • taught at King's College, London
  • denied doctrine of everlasting punishment
  • forerunner of ecumenical movement
  • friend of the workingman who began Christian Socialism in 1848
McCheyne, Robert Murray
Robert Murray McCheyne

Robert Murray McCheyne

  • Scottish Presbyterian pastor
  • emphasized personal piety, prayer, compassion, and evangelism.

McConnell, Francis John
  • US Methodist
McCosh, James
James McCosh

James McCosh

McCracken, Robert James
  • Scottish pastor in Canada
  • later succeeded Fosdick in NY
  • professor of theologian and philosopher at McMaster (Ontario).
McDowell, Benjamin
  • Irish Presbyterian pastor
McDowell, William Fraser
  • US Methodist
McGavran, Donald
Donald McGavran

Donald McGavran

McGiffert, Arthur Cushman
  • Church historian at Union (NY)
  • promoted liberalism
  • scientific history which excludes the supernatural is more objective than one which allows for divine involvement
  • advocated social gospel
McIntire, Carl
Carl McIntire

Carl McIntire

  • founded Faith Theological Seminary and Shelton College
  • involved in Presbyterian schisms
  • founded American Council of Christian Churches to oppose National Council of Churches and the International Council of Christian Churches to oppose World Council of Churches
  • supported Vietnam War

McNeill, John
  • Scottish Presbyterian preacher
McPherson, Aimee Semple
Aime Semple McPherson

Aime Semple McPherson

  • Pentecostal woman preacher
  • founded International Church of the Foursquare Gospel

McTaggart, John McTaggart Ellis
John McTaggart

John McTaggart

  • Taught at Trinity College, Cambridge
  • wrote
    1. Some Dogmas of Religion
    2. The Nature of Existence
  • pluralistic Personal Idealist
  • emphasized individual minds, not one great mind
  • like G. Howison

Meade, William
  • US Episc. founded Virginia Theological Seminary
  • Evolution is the product of continuous physico-chemical action.
  • A living organism is defined as a complex system of physico-chemical mechanisms.


  • Austrian philosopher who worked at the University of Graz.
  • He was a pupil of Franz Brentano and is most famous for his belief in nonexistent objects

Melanchthon, Philipp
Philipp Melanchthon

Philipp Melanchthon

  • German reformer
  • influenced by Erasmus
  • followed Luther
  • systematized and defended Luther's theology
  • wrote first protestant systematic theology Loci Communes
  • tried reconciliation with Reformed and Catholics turned Lutheranism from "Calvinism" to "Arminian"

  • Whatever the state of the world, it may be improved.
  • Associated with Pragmatism.
Melville, Andrew
Melville, Henry
  • Anglican pastor who wrote his sermons out several times before preaching them.
  • a radical Reformation group started by Menno Simons.
  • See the Anabaptists with whom they share some distinctive characteristics.


  • When there is moral disagreement, both views may be correct.
  • Also see Ethical relativism
  • The theory of first principles or, as synonymous with ontology, the theory of being as such.
  • There are no rational ways of settling moral disputes.
  • Nothing can be proved in ethics.
  • A systematic but tentative doubt is a prelude to genuine knowledge.
Meyer, Frederick Brotherton
Frederick Brotherton Meyer

Frederick Brotherton Meyer

  • British Baptist preacher
  • crusaded against public vices
  • wrote 70 books

Milic, John (Jan of Kromeriz)
(d 1374)
  • Moravian reformer
Mill, James
James Mill

James Mill

Mill, John Stuart
John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill

  • philosopher
  • utilitarian ethics
  • greatest good for the greatest number.
  • Wrote Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy.
  • Ideas such as matter and causality are admitted if interpreted phenomenalistically, as, e.g., "possibilities of sensation."
  • Knowledge of God is possible as an inference from knowledge of the world (from sense data).
  • The uniformity of nature makes possible knowledge of a world as cause of sense data.
  • "Matter is the permanent possibility of sensation."
  • Reality is not an independent mental or material substance but a complex of actual and possible sensations.
  • Material and mental entities are constructed from sense data.
  • Sense data belong to a subjective mind (as in idealism) and the objective world (as in realism).
  • Realism is ordered by an invariable principle of causality (determinism).

Miller, William
William Miller

William Miller

  • Baptist pastor in NY
  • began Seventh-day Adventism
  • said the Lord would return in 1844.

Milton, John
John Milton

John Milton

  • British Congregational Puritan
  • wrote
    1. Areopagitica
    2. Paradise Lost
  • in government service under Cromwell
  • but forced to retire by the Restoration.

(c 570-632)
  • The founder of Islam.
  • He was born in Mecca, where he lived as a merchant, married Khadija, a rich widow, and had a daughter, Fatima.
  • At the age of 40, he had a vision and began to preach as a prophet, exhorting the people to repentance, prayer, belief in the one god Allah, and alms-giving.
  • In 622 to escape assassination he fled to Medina, where he set up a theocratic state.
  • In 630 he conquered Mecca.
  • He died in Medina, having established his authority throughout S. W. Arabia.
  • Islam (meaning "submission") is the third and last of the world's 3 great monotheistic religions
  • teaches that Jesus is only a prophet, not the Savior or a Person of the Trinity
  • his revelation is written in the Koran
  • claims to be final prophet from God
  • followers called Muslims or Moslems
Mohammad II
  • Ottoman sultan of Turkey (1451-81).
  • His capture of Constantinople (1453) marked the end of the Byzantine Empire.
  • He conquered much of the Balkans, until checked by Hunyadi and by Scanderbeg.
Moltmann, Jürgen
Jürgen Moltmann

Jürgen Moltmann

  • theologian at University of Tübingen
  • wrote Theology of Hope
  • emphasized theology of hope
  • the present is to be interpreted in terms of the future
  • eschatology is key to understanding theology

  • A unit of metaphysical reality (spiritual for Leibniz) capable of entering into relations that comprise the world.
  • All things are forms of one substance.
  • Thales said that Water is the material cause of all things.
  • Anaximander said that the Boundless or Infinite is the essence of all things.
  • Anaximenes said that all things arise from a condensation or rarefaction of air.
  • Parmenides said that Being is the one homogeneous and continuous substance.
  • Heraclitus said that Fire is the universal flux or becoming of all things and the first principle of reality.
Monod, Adolphe Theodore
  • French evangelical leader
  • formed Reformed church in France
  • Wrote A Dying Man's Regrets
  • A view which says that Jesus had only one nature in contrast with the Nestorians that said He was two persons with two natures.
  • See Catholic Encyclopedia
  • The belief that there is only one God


Moody, Dwight Lyman
Dwight L. Moody

Dwight L. Moody

  • US evangelist
  • founded Northfield Seminary (school for girls), Mt. Hermon School (school for boys), and Chicago Evangelization Society later called Moody Bible Institute.

Moon, Sun Myung
Sun Myung Moon

Sun Myung Moon

  • Korean
  • head of Unification Church

Moore, George Edward
George Edward Moore

George Edward Moore

  • British philosopher
  • professor at Cambridge
  • New Realist
  • rejected any concept of God
  • emphasized analytic philosophy
  • wrote
    1. Principia Ethica
    2. Philosophical Studies
  • As sensibles (i.e., complexes of sense data), reality exists independent of perception, though perception renders the complexes as physical objects.

Moorehead, William Gallogly
  • US Presbyterian
  • President of Xenia Seminary
  • an editor of Scofield Reference Bible
  • Man (unlike other creatures) is a moral being.
  • This morality is an imperfect reflection of God's holiness.
  • Where there is a reflection, there must also be the original source.
  • This source is God.
Morgan, Conwy Lloyd
  • philosopher
  • professor at Bristol
  • wrote
    1. Emergent Evolution and Life
    2. Mind and Spirit
  • Realist metaphysics
Morgan, George Campbell
G. Campbell Morgan

G. Campbell Morgan

  • British Congregational preacher
  • twice pastored Westminster Chapel

Morgan, William
William Morgan

William Morgan

  • Welsh bishop and Bible translator
  • first to translate Bible into Welsh

Morris, David
  • Welsh Methodist preacher
Morris, Ebenezer
Ebenezer Morris

Ebenezer Morris

Morrison, Charles Clayton
Charles Morrison

Charles Morrison

  • US Disciples of Christ
  • founded Christian Century magazine

Morrison, George Herbert
Morrison, Henry Clay
Henry Clay Morrison

Henry Clay Morrison

  • US Methodist
  • emphasized sanctification

Mott, John Raleigh
John Raleigh Mott

John Raleigh Mott

  • US church leader (Methodist layman)
  • ecumenical leader
  • general secretary of YMCA

Moule, Handley Carr Glynn
  • Anglican bishop
  • wrote many devotional commentaries
Mozley, James Bowling
  • Anglican in Oxford Movement
Mühlenberg, Henry Melchior
Henry Mühlenberg

Henry Mühlenberg

  • US Lutheran pietistic pastor
  • reformed Lutheran Synod in America.

Müller, George
George Müller

George Müller

Müller, Julius
  • German theologian against rationalistic tendencies of his day
  • J. S. Mill said that cause is "the sum total of the conditions positive and negative taken together which being realized, the consequent invariably follows."
Münzer, Thomas
Thomas Münzer

Thomas Münzer

  • Fanatic reformer
  • influenced early by Luther
  • God speaks directly to Christians through visions and dreams
  • early Anabaptist
  • leader of Peasants' Revolt

Murray, Andrew
Andrew Murray

Andrew Murray

  • Scottish
  • became Dutch Reformed pastor in South Africa
  • charismatic
  • mystical theology

Myconius, Oswald
Mylne, Walter
  • Scottish Roman Catholic became Reformed
  • burned at the stake
  • God is the ineffable One, transcendent, yet not absolutely Other.
  • As Absolute Self, God is linked to the Real Self of individuals.
  • "The soul finds God in its own depths" (Ruysbroeck)
  • Knowledge of being "one with God" is directly experienced in intuition.
  • To know God is to understand that He is, not what He is.