Bacon, Francis
Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon

  • the father of modern science
  • his mother was a Calvinist
  • wrote Novum Organum
  • His method was to gather facts and then draw theories from them (Inductive Method)
  • He was not a great scientist, but his writings helped scientific progress
  • His book The New Atlantis was a political fable, but in it he describes many later inventions (does that make him a science fiction writer?)
  • He was a lawyer and then a judge
  • He was accused of taking bribes in 1621 (but all judges did so in that day) and confessed to some of the charges
  • Because King James I liked him, the fine of 40,000 pounds was erased
  • See entries in
    1. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
    2. See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Bacon, Leonard
Leonard Bacon

Leonard Bacon

Bacon, Roger
Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon

  • Studied mathematics, astronomy, optics, alchemy, and languages
  • the first European to describe in detail the process of making gunpowder, and he proposed flying machines and motorized ships and carriages
  • Bacon (as he himself complacently remarked) displayed a prodigious energy and zeal in the pursuit of experimental science; indeed, his studies were talked about everywhere and eventually won him a place in popular literature as a kind of wonder worker
  • Bacon therefore represents a historically precocious expression of the empirical spirit of experimental science, even though his actual practice of it seems to have been exaggerated
  • See entries in

Baillie, Donald Macpherson
Donald Macpherson Baillie

Donald Macpherson Baillie

  • Scottish Presbyterian pastor and theologian
  • taught at St Andrews
  • Post-Liberal
  • ecumenical leader
  • wrote God was in Christ
  • his older brother was John
  • See entry in The Baillie Report

Baillie, John
  • Scottish theologian
  • taught at Auburn and Union (NY), Emmanuel College (Toronto), and University of Edinburgh
  • Post-Liberal
  • wrote
    1. The Interpretation of Religion
    2. The Sense of the Presence of God
    3. A Diary of Private Prayer
    4. Our Knowledge of God
    5. Invitation to Pilgrimage
  • His brother was Donald
  • See entry in The Baillie Report

Balmer, Randall H.
Randall H. Balmer

Randall H. Balmer

  • Wrote thesis on nineteenth-century Princeton theology.
  • Wrote
    1. Blessed Assurance : A History of Evangelicalism in America
    2. Protestantism in America
    3. Thy Kingdom Come - The Religious Right
  • See entry at Yorktown University

Barclay, Robert
Barclay, William
  • Scottish pastor
  • taught at University of Glasgow
  • Universalist
  • wrote Daily Study Bible
  • See entry in Christian Courier

Baring-Gould, Sabine
Sabine Baring-Gould

Sabine Baring-Gould

  • Anglican preacher
  • wrote hymn "Onward, Christian Soldiers"
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Barnes, Albert
Albert Barnes

Albert Barnes

  • US Presbyterian wrote commentaries on OT and NT
  • He was an Amillennialist
  • graduated at Hamilton College, Princeton Theological Seminary
  • ordained as a Presbyterian minister by the presbytery of Elizabethtown, New Jersey
  • held to freewill and tried but not convicted for his lack of holding Calvinism in 1836
  • See entries in

Barnhouse, Donald Grey
Donald Grey Barnhouse

Donald Grey Barnhouse

  • US Presbyterian pastor for 33 years in one church
  • founder of Eternity magazine
  • wrote several books including commentary on Romans

Baron d'Holbach, Paul Henri Thiry
See Paul Holbach
Barrow, Isaac
Isaac Barrow

Isaac Barrow

  • Anglican pastor and mathematics scholar
  • preached long sermons.
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Barth, Karl
Karl Barth

Karl Barth

  • Swiss theologian
  • professor at Munster, Bonn, Basel
  • founder of neo-orthodoxy
  • wrote
    1. Dogmatics in Outline
    2. The Epistle to the Romans
    3. Die Kirchliche Dogmatik
    4. The Knowledge of God and the Service of God
    5. From Rousseau to Ritschl
    6. A Shorter Commentary on Romans
    7. Theologische Fragen und Antworten
    8. The Word of God and the Word of Man
  • Ousted from Germany for opposing Hitler
  • taught absolute transcendence of God
  • Bible becomes the Word of God as it is read
  • all people are elected in Christ.

Basil the Great
(c 330-379)
Basil the Great

Basil the Great

Bauer, Bruno
Baur, Ferdinand Christian
  • German protestant theologian at University of Tübingen
  • developed method of historical criticism: (Jewish interpretation under Peter) + (Greek interpretation under Paul) = (New Testament and Christian Church)
  • denied authenticity of most of NT
  • wrote Paul the Apostle of Jesus Christ
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Bavinck, Herman
Herman Bavinck

Herman Bavinck

  • Dutch Reformed theologian
  • taught at Kampen and Free University of Amsterdam
  • Wrote The Doctrine of God

Baxter, Richard
Richard Baxter

Richard Baxter

  • English Anglican Puritan theologian
  • persecuted as a Puritan
  • wrote 100 books including:
    1. The Saint's Everlasting Rest
    2. The Reformed Pastor
    3. A Call to the Unconverted
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Beauvoir, Simone de
Simone de Beauvoir

Simone de Beauvoir

  • female existential author
  • Began modern feminist movement
  • Wrote
    1. The Second Sex
    2. The Mandarins

  • The process of actualizing potential.
  • It is usually thought of as an activity or movement.
Bede, the Venerable
(c 673-735)
the Venerable Bede

the Venerable Bede

Beecher, Henry Ward
Henry Ward Beecher

Henry Ward Beecher

  • US Congregational great liberal preacher
  • pastored for 40 years in one church
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Beecher, Lyman
Lyman Beecher

Lyman Beecher

  • US Congregational and Presbyterian preacher
  • preached against social sins
  • tried to drive out Unitarians
  • President of Lane Seminary
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

  • The theory that all mental activity may be reduced to implicit behavior.
  • Change the way a man behaves and you change how he thinks.
Behrends, Adolphus J. F.
  • US Baptist and Congregational preacher.
  • That which is
  • In Plato, it refers to the classification concepts or the intelligible universal characteristics of things, the Ideas or Forms
  • In Aristotle and scholasticism, it refers to particular existing and developing things and rational or conceptual being, i.e., true statements that have a mental existence as contents of minds.
  • In Heidegger and the existentialists, it distinguishes between "being" (the thing as it is) and "Being" (the thing it will become)
  • See

Bellarmine, Robert Francis Romulus
Robert Francis Romulus Bellarmine

Robert Francis Romulus Bellarmine

Bengel, Johann Albrecht
Johann Albrecht Bengel

Johann Albrecht Bengel

Bentham, Jeremy
Jeremy Bentham, age 40

Jeremy Bentham, age 40

Jeremy Bentham, age 75

Jeremy Bentham, age 75

  • Philosopher and jurist
  • began to study Latin at the age of three
  • at twelve, he was sent to Queen's College Oxford where his father, an attorney, hoped Jeremy would also become a lawyer and maybe Lord Chancellor of England
  • Bentham, however, soon became disillusioned with the law, especially after hearing the lectures of the leading authority of the day, Sir William Blackstone (1723-80)
  • Instead of practising the law, he decided to write about it, and he spent his life criticising the existing law and suggesting ways for its improvement
  • His father's death in 1792 left him financially independent, and for nearly forty years he lived quietly in Westminster, producing between ten and twenty sheets of manuscript a day, even when he was in his eighties.
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Berdyaev, Nicolai
Nicolai Berdyaev

Nicolai Berdyaev

  • Russian professor at Moscow, exiled in 1922
  • Marxist
  • returned to the Russian Orthodox Church
  • stressed personal existence
  • wrote
    1. The Beginning and the End
    2. the Destiny of Man
    3. The Russian Idea

Bergson, Henri
Henri Bergson

Henri Bergson

  • French philosopher
  • professor at College de France
  • wrote
    1. Introduction to Metaphysics
    2. Bewusstseinstheologie
    3. Creative Evolution
    4. The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
  • Pragmatic vitalism
  • vital impetus (élan vital) in all creatures esp. mankind seen in morality and religion
  • taught creative or emergent evolution where the élan vital within matter develops reality to new ends
  • See Bergsonianism

A form of Intuitionism which states that intuition is the superior source of knowledge because it places the knower in a relationship of identification and intelligent sympathy with the thing known.
Berkeley, George
George Berkeley

George Berkeley

  • Pronounce his name as BARK-lee
  • Irish theistic philosopher
  • subjective idealist
  • said material objects exist only as perceived by us
  • also said, for these ideas to exist, God must exist
  • refuted Deists
  • wrote Alciphron
  • See diagram of Berkeley's theory of reality.
  • See entries in
theory of reality

theory of reality

See Berkeleyanism
Berkhof, Louis
Louis Berkhof

Louis Berkhof

  • Calvinist
  • professor of systematic theology and president of Calvin theological Seminary (1931-44)
  • wrote
    1. History of Christian Doctrines
    2. Manual of Christian Doctrine
    3. Principles of Biblical Interpretation
    4. Systematic Theology

Bernard of Clairvaux
(c 1090-1153)
Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux

  • French Cistercian monk
  • mystic
  • wrote hymns:
    • "Jesus, Thou Joy of Loving Hearts"
    • "Jesus the Very Thought of Thee"
    • "O Sacred Head Now Wounded"
  • Wrote
    1. Degrees of Humility and Pride
    2. Loving God
  • Said "God is known so far as He is loved."
  • See entries in

Bernardino of Siena
Bernardino of Siena

Bernardino of Siena

  • Italian Franciscan who founded 300 monasteries
  • used open-air preaching

Berridge, John
  • British Methodist
  • itinerant preacher
  • worked with George Whitefield and the Calvinistic Methodists
Bersier, Eugene
  • French Reformed pastor
Berthold of Regensburg
(c 1210-1272)
  • German Franciscan evangelistic open-air preacher
  • preached popular sermons in German that consisted of simple moral teachings without doctrinal complications
  • He drew vivid illustrations from the Old and New Testaments, filling his sermons with admonitions of social justice that defended the oppressed labourer against the harsh employers and masters
  • His sermons are considered to be an essential contribution to the first flowering of German literature, and are quoted in every handbook of old prose for German students
See Dimensional beyondness
Beza, Theodore
Theodore Beza

Theodore Beza

  • Reformer
  • trained in law
  • taught Greek at Lausanne and Geneva
  • discovered Codex Bezae
  • successor to Calvin in Geneva
  • advisor to French Huguenots
  • took Calvinism one step beyond Calvin.
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Study of revelation of God, Study of the Bible
Biederwolf, William Edward
William Edward Biederwolf

William Edward Biederwolf

  • US Presbyterian evangelist and author.
  • Wrote Study of the Holy Spirit.

Biel, Gabriel
(c 1425-1495)
Bilney, Thomas
Binney, Thomas
Thomas Binney

Thomas Binney

  • British Congregational pastored 40 years in one church in London.
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Binning, Hugh
  • Scottish preacher
  • His sermons can be found in the book: The Works of Reverend Hugh Binning.
  • See entry at Hall of Fame
The study of ethical issues related to biological matters, particularly of human life. Also called biomedical ethics.
Belief in two gods or supreme beings.
Black, Hugh
  • Scottish Presbyterian brother of James
  • associate of Alexander Whyte
  • taught at Union Seminary NY for 32 years
  • See entry in All-Refer
Black, James
  • Scottish Presbyterian
  • brother of Hugh
  • wrote Mystery of Preaching
Blackader, John
  • Scottish Presbyterian
  • had a large congregation but ejected by the government
  • became itinerant preacher but arrested and died in prison.
Blackstone, William E.
William E. Blackstone

William E. Blackstone

  • Methodist
  • helped start Chicago Hebrew Mission
  • supported Zionism
  • has forest named after him in Israel
  • wrote Jesus is Coming

Blackwood, Andrew
  • US Presbyterian taught homiletics at Princeton
  • wrote many books on preaching and pastoral duties
Blair, Hugh
Blair, Samuel
  • US Presbyterian pastor
Blake, William
William Blake

William Blake

Bloch, Ernst
Ernst Bloch

Ernst Bloch

  • German Marxist philosopher
  • wrote The Principle of Hope which influenced Jürgen Moltmann's theology of hope

Bloesch, Donald G.
Donald G. Bloesch

Donald G. Bloesch

  • Professor of theology emeritus at Dubuque Theological Seminary in Dubuque, Iowa
  • did postdoctoral work at the universities of Oxford, Tübingen and Basel
  • wrote
    1. Essentials of Evangelical Theology
    2. The Future of Evangelical Christianity
    3. The Struggle of Prayer and Freedom for Obedience
    4. A Theology of Word and Spirit - Authority and Method in Theology

See Peter of Blois
Blondel, Maurice
Maurice Blondel

Maurice Blondel

  • Roman Catholic professor in France
  • wrote L'Action
  • Action, not thought, is most important
  • a man progresses by moving from self action to social action to moral action

Boehler, Peter
Peter Boehler

Peter Boehler

  • a Moravian pastor and friend of John Wesley
  • instrumental in Charles Wesley's conversion and later of John's conversion

Boehme, Jakob
Jakob Boehme

Jakob Boehme

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus


  • a Medieval heretical group which came out of the Euchites and was prominent in Eastern Europe.
  • They were dualistic, ascetic, held Sabellian view of Trinity; and rejected the sacraments.
See John Hus
see John Hus.
Bohr, Niels
Niels Bohr

Niels Bohr

see Uncertainty Principle
Bonar, Andrew
Andrew Bonar

Andrew Bonar

Bonar, Horatius
Horatius Bonar

Horatius Bonar

  • Scottish Presbyterian preacher and hymnwriter
  • wrote over 600 hymns
  • Wrote God's Way of Holiness
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

See Bonaventure, Giovani
Bonaventure, Giovani
Giovani Bonaventure

Giovani Bonaventure

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich
Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

  • German Lutheran pastor
  • had mystical tendencies
  • coined terms "cheap grace" and "religionless Christianity"
  • a member of resistance against Nazis
  • imprisoned 1943-1945 for plotting to kill Hitler
  • hanged for treason
  • wrote
    1. The Cost of Discipleship
    2. Ethics
    3. Creation and Fall
    4. Letters and Papers from Prison

SeeSummum Bonum
Booth, Catherine
Catherine Booth

Catherine Booth

  • Née: Catherine Mumford
  • Had a strong religious and social emphasis before marrying William Booth
  • helped found Salvation Army

Booth, William
William Booth

William Booth

  • Methodist minister
  • wanted to meet needs of street people in London and began Salvation Army
  • travelled about 8 million kms
  • preached 60,000 sermons
  • wrote In Darkest England
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Bora, Katherine
Katherine Bora

Katherine Bora

Boreham, Frank W.
  • Australian Baptist preacher trained under Spurgeon
Bosanquet, Bernard
Bernard Bosanquet

Bernard Bosanquet

Bossuet, Jacques Benigne
Jacques Benigne Bossuet

Jacques Benigne Bossuet

Boston, Thomas
Thomas Boston

Thomas Boston

  • Scottish Presbyterian pastor
  • wrote Human Nature in its Fourfold State
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Bourdaloue, Louis
Louis Bourdaloue

Louis Bourdaloue

Boutroux, Emile
Emile Boutroux

Emile Boutroux

  • French professor at Sorbonne
  • wrote
    1. On the Contingency of the Laws of Nature
    2. Science and Religion in Contemporary Philosophy
  • held to Philosophy of Spirit
  • spirit is ultimate reality but not same as Hegelian thought
  • man is not only a purely physical being but also a spiritual one
  • all things (even inanimate things) have a kind of spiritual life of their own
  • emphasized spirit as the agent of action, not thought
  • strong empirical emphasis

Bowen, William G.
William G. Bowen

William G. Bowen

Bowie, Walter Russell
Walter Russell Bowie

Walter Russell Bowie

  • US Episcopal pastor
  • taught at Union Seminary and Virginia Seminary

Bowne, Borden Parker
  • Professor at Boston
  • liberal Methodist philosopher
  • wrote
    1. The Essence of Religion
    2. Metaphysics
    3. Personalism
  • Popularized personal idealism and emphasized the immanence of God
  • Philosophy of Spirit
  • spirit is ultimate reality but not same as Hegelian thought
  • man is not only a purely physical being but also a spiritual one
  • all things (even inanimate things) have a kind of spiritual life of their own
  • emphasized on spirit as the agent of action, rather than merely thought
  • strong empirical emphasis
Bradford, John
John Bradford

John Bradford

  • British reformer
  • each sermon contained 3 questions
  • martyred
  • His writings are contained in The Writings of John Bradford 2 vol.
  • See entries at

Bradley, Francis Herbert
Francis Herbert Bradley

Francis Herbert Bradley

Bradwardine, Thomas
  • Professor of divinity and mathematics at Oxford
  • archbishop of Canterbury
  • against Pelagianism
  • emphasized God's grace and irresistible will
  • died of Black Plague
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia
Brainerd, David
David Brainerd

David Brainerd

Bray, William "Billy"
William Bray

William Bray

Breese, Samuel
  • Welsh school teacher who became a Baptist preacher
Brenz, Johann
Bridaine, Jacques
Bridgman, Percy William
Percy William Bridgman

Percy William Bridgman

  • American physicist
  • In 1946, he received Nobel prize in physics for work with high pressures
  • Wrote on operational analysis as a philosophical approach to physics

Briggs, Charles Augustus
C. A. Briggs

C. A. Briggs

  • liberal professor at Union Seminary in Virginia whose hiring caused problems in Presbyterian Church
  • denied inspiration of Scripture
  • first editor of International Critical Commentary series
  • Wrote
    1. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament
    2. Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Brightman, Edgar Sheffield
Edgar Brightman

Edgar Brightman

  • Professor at Boston
  • wrote The Problem of God
  • Personalist philosopher
  • held to finite view of God
  • Philosophy of Spirit
  • spirit is ultimate reality but not same as Hegelian thought
  • man not only a purely physical being but also a spiritual one
  • all things (even inanimate things) have a kind of spiritual life of their own
  • emphasized spirit as the agent of action, rather than merely thought
  • strong empirical emphasis

Broad, Charlie Dunbar
  • British philosopher.
Broadus, John Albert
John Albert Broadus

John Albert Broadus

  • Southern Baptist
  • wrote
    1. On the Preparation and Delivery of Sermons
    2. History of Preaching

Brock, William
  • British Baptist pastor in one church for 24 years
  • opposed slavery
Bromiley, Geoffrey W.
  • Prof. of church history and historical theology at Fuller
  • Anglican
  • wrote
    1. Introduction to Historical theology
    2. Introduction to the Theology of Karl Barth
  • He is also the translator of
    1. Gerhard Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
    2. Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics
    3. many works by Helmut Thielicke, Jacques Ellul, and other influential 20th-century theologians.

Brookes, James H.
  • Presbyterian pastor in St. Louis, Missouri
  • "converted" to pre-millennialism
  • influenced Scofield
  • wrote
    1. Maranatha
    2. Israel and the Church
    3. Is the Bible Inspired?

Brooks, Phillips
Phillips Brooks

Phillips Brooks

  • Episc. preacher who read his sermon from a manuscript
  • wrote "O Little Town of Bethlehem"
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Brooks, Thomas
  • Nonconformist preacher
  • Born into a Puritan family, he was sent to Emmanuel College, Cambridge
  • He soon became an advocate of the Congregational way and served as a chaplain in the Civil War
  • In 1648 he accepted the rectory of St. Margaret's, New Fish Street, London, but only after making his Congregational principles clear to the vestry.
  • On several occasions he preached before Parliament.
  • He was ejected in 1660 and remained in London as a Nonconformist preacher
  • Government spies reported that he preached at Tower Wharf and in Moorfields
  • During the Great Plague and Great Fire he worked in London, and in 1672 was granted a license to preach in Lime Street
  • He wrote over a dozen books, most of which are devotional in character:
    1. Heaven on Earth
    2. Precious Remedies Against Satan's Devices

Brow, Robert
Robert Brow

Robert Brow

  • taught theology at the Allahabad Bible Seminary
  • became the first North India staff worker for the Union of Evangelical Students of India (Inter Varsity)
  • He was ordained as an Anglican (Episcopal) priest in 1954, and he has served in parishes in India, England, Canada, Cyprus, and Abu Dhabi
  • wrote several commentaries on the New Testament

Brown, Hugh S.
  • British Baptist pastored one church for 37 years.

Brown, John "of Edinburgh"
  • Scottish professor of Theology
  • wrote 8 commentaries
  • grandson of celebrated "John Brown of Haddington"
  • wrote
    1. Discourses and Saying of our Lord (1852)
    2. Expository Discourses on 1 Peter
    3. Galatians
    4. The Giving of the Law
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Brown, John "of Haddington"
  • Scottish pastor
  • pastored one church for 36 years
  • a gifted preacher, and prolific writer of theology
  • taught himself Greek while working in the fields
  • minister of the Secession Church
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Brown, J. Baldwin
Brown, Raymond
Raymond Brown

Raymond Brown

  • Roman Catholic NT scholar
  • wrote Introduction to the New Testament

Brown, William Adams
  • US Presbyterian liberal theologian
  • taught at Union (NY)
  • said doctrines come not from revelation but from experience.

Bruce, Alexander B.
  • Scottish theologian wrote The Training of the Twelve.

Bruce, Frederick Fyvie
F. F. Bruce

F. F. Bruce

  • Conservative NT scholar
  • taught at University of Manchester
  • wrote
    1. The Canon of Scripture where some think he questioned the canon of Scripture and inerrancy
    2. The Hard Sayings of Jesus
    3. Jesus: Lord and Savior
    4. New Testament History
    5. Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free
    6. as well as several commentaries

Bruce, Robert
  • Scottish preacher
  • banished twice from his church for opposing the king

Brunner, Heinrich Emil
  • Swiss Reformed pastor and theologian
  • professor at Zurich
  • (with Barth) founded neo-orthodoxy
  • wrote
    1. Man in Revolt (Christian Anthropology)
    2. The Divine Imperative (ethics)
    3. Christianity and Civilization
    4. The Mediator
    5. The Divine-Human Encounter
    6. Revelation and Reason

Bruno, Giordano
Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno

Buber, Martin
Martin Buber

Martin Buber

  • professor at Frankfurt and Hebrew University of Jerusalem
  • Jewish philosopher known for I-thou relationship
  • wrote
    1. I and Thou
    2. Pointing the Way

Bucer, Martin
Martin Bucer

Martin Bucer

Buchman, Frank
Frank Buchman

Frank Buchman

  • Lutheran pastor
  • founder of Moral Rearmament or Oxford Group

Bugenhagen, Johann
Bulgakov, Sergey Nikolayevich
  • Russian professor at Moscow and Simferopol
  • wrote The Orthodox Church
  • founded the Institute of Orthodox Theology in Paris
  • concepts of sobornost and sophia

Bulkeley, Peter
Peter Bulkeley

Peter Bulkeley

Bullinger, Johann Heinrich
Johann Heinrich Bullinger

Johann Heinrich Bullinger

Bultmann, Rudolf
Rudolf Bultmann

Rudolf Bultmann

  • German Lutheran
  • NT professor at University of Marburg
  • associate of Barth
  • wrote
    1. Jesus Christ and Mythology
    2. History and Eschatology
    3. Primitive Christianity in Its Contemporary Setting
    4. Theology of the New Testament
    5. Jesus and the Word
    6. The Form of the Synoptic Tradition
    7. Kerygma and Myth.
  • He applied Heidegger's existentialism to theology
  • pioneer in form criticism of Gospels
  • developed demythologization.

Bunyan, John
John Bunyan

John Bunyan

  • English Baptist Puritan
  • self taught
  • tinker by trade
  • fought in Parliamentary army
  • imprisoned for 12 years for preaching without a license
  • wrote
    1. The Pilgrim's Progress from his prison cell at Bedford
    2. The Holy War
    3. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Burchard, Samuel D.
Samuel D. Burchard

Samuel D. Burchard

  • US Presbyterian served 40 years in one church
  • declared that the Democratic Party was for "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion" and thus put Grover Cleveland (Republican) into office.

Burckhardt, Jacob
Jacob Burckhardt

Jacob Burckhardt

Buren, Paul Van
  • wrote The Secular Meaning of the Gospels.
  • One of the leaders of Death of God movement.

Burgh, William George de
  • professor at Reading
  • wrote
    1. From Morality to Religion
  • Ethical emphasized
  • Philosophy of Spirit
  • spirit is ultimate reality but not same as Hegelian thought
  • man not only a purely physical being but also a spiritual one
  • all things (even inanimate things) have a kind of spiritual life of their own
  • emphasized spirit as the agent of action, rather than merely thought
  • strong empirical emphasis

Buridan, John [Jean]
(c 1297-1358)
Burnet, Gilbert
Gilbert Burnet

Gilbert Burnet

Burr, Aaron
Aaron Burr

Aaron Burr

Burton, Nathanael J.
  • US Congregational pastor

Bushnell, Horace
Horace Bushnell

Horace Bushnell

  • US Congregational theologian key founder of liberalism
  • emphasized moral-influence view of atonement
  • wrote Christian Nurture which was influential in Christian Education
  • he pastored only one church all his life
  • preached from a manuscript.
  • See entry in 1911 Encyclopedia

Butler, Joseph
Joseph Butler

Joseph Butler

  • British bishop, theologian and apologist
  • Wrote Analogy of Religion using empirical argument to defeat Deism
  • natural religion is insufficient without complementary revelation
  • probable truth of revealed religion is as strong as probable truth of natural religion.
  • See entries in