(3rd cent)
  • modalistic view of Trinity (God appears as the Father in the OT, as the Son in the NT, and as the Holy Spirit in the church).
  • Followers are Sabellians
Sanday, William
  • Anglican
  • brought German biblical criticism to Britain
  • Arminian
Sandys, Edwin
(c 1516-1588)
Edwin Sandys

Edwin Sandys

  • Archbishop of York
  • helped to translate Bishop's Bible

Sangster, William Edwyn
William Sangster

William Sangster

  • British Methodist who wrote on preaching and Christian living

Santayana, George
George Santayana

George Santayana

  • aesthetic humanist
  • wrote
    1. Skepticism and Animal Faith
    2. The Realm of Spirit
    3. Reason in Religion
    4. Winds of Doctrine
    5. Realms of Being
  • Reality consists in a plurality of material existences known through the essences.
  • Essences are the ideally possible modes or forms of matter.
  • Material existences including minds embody essences.
  • Minds intuit essences not material existences.
  • Material existences must be accepted on "animal faith."
  • God is the highest symbol of man's highest ideals

Sartre, Jean-Paul
Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Sartre

  • French existentialist
  • atheist
  • wrote
    1. The Transcendence of the Ego
    2. Nausea
    3. Theory of the Emotions
    4. Being and Nothingness
    5. Critique of Dialectical Reason
    6. No Exit
    7. Existentialism Is Humanism
  • Develops a "phenomenological ontology" centering on a reflexive analysis of consciousness, wherein "consciousness of something" is distinguished from the self-consciousness that is reflexively implicit or "mirrored" in "consciousness of something."
  • As being-in-itself, the world is everything that is given meaning or structured by being-for-itself in the act of consciousness.
  • As free and transcending self-consciousness, being-for-itself is nothingness.
  • When one becomes self-conscious, one reflects on the pre-reflective consciousness of something else.
  • The self of which I become conscious is not the subject performing the reflection, but its intentional object which has emerged in retrospect.
  • In-itself it is nothingness.
  • Though the world is objective, what it is in-itself (its structure) must be conferred by the knower as the creator of all meaning in the act of knowing.
  • There is no antecedent human nature as a substantial self, as in Descartes, or transcendental self, as in Kant or Husserl.
  • Also there is no God, whose essence is existence.
  • There is only man, whose consciousness is existence without essence (i.e., nothingness).
  • Existence is not the fact of existing in the usual sense.
  • Existence is consciousness, and consciousness is nothingness.
  • "Existence precedes essence."
  • Essence (i.e., meaning, or what something is, etc.) must be chosen.
  • Consciousness for-itself must choose itself by its acts or choices; this implies freedom.
  • But freedom exists only as consciousness acts in relation to the world.
  • Man is only as he "defines himself by his goals," i.e., only as he chooses his future.

Saurin, Jacques
  • French protestant preacher
Savonarola, Girolamo
Girolamo Savanarola

Girolamo Savanarola

  • Italian Roman Catholic allegorical preacher appealed to emotions
  • excommunicated for denouncing the pope for his immorality
  • hanged and burned at the stake

Sayers, Dorothy Leigh
Dorothy Sayers

Dorothy Sayers

  • Anglican lay apologist; wrote mystery stories

Scarborough, Lee Rutland
Lee Scarborough

Lee Scarborough

  • US Southern Baptist President of Southwestern Baptist Seminary

Schaff, Philip
Philip Schaff

Philip Schaff

  • Swiss theologian and church historian
  • unsuccessfully accused of heresy
  • taught at Union (NY)
  • wrote
    1. History of the Christian Church (8 vol)
    2. Creeds of Christendom (3 vol)
    3. edited Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.

Scheler, Max
Max Scheler

Max Scheler

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm
Friedrich Schelling

Friedrich Schelling

Scherer, Paul Ehrman
  • US Lutheran taught homiletics at Union Seminary and Princeton
Schleiermacher, Friedrich Daniel Ernst
Friedrich Schleiermacher

Friedrich Schleiermacher

  • German theologian (Liberal)
  • against traditional orthodox theology and German pietism
  • religion is not a matter of belief or practice but of feeling of absolute dependence
  • father of modern theology or the father of modern liberal theology
  • wrote
    1. Discourse on Religion
    2. The Christian Faith
    3. On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers
    4. ten volumes of sermons

Schlick, Moritz
Moritz Schlick

Moritz Schlick

  • German philosopher
  • founded logical positivists called Vienna Circle
  • wrote
    • Problems of Ethics
    • Allgemeine Erkenntnisslehre
  • Rejected synthetic a priori knowledge.
  • Viewed philosophy as primarily logical analysis.
  • Emphasized the analytical and a priori character of logic and mathematics.
  • Distinguished empirical or factual from relational or logical knowledge.
  • Limits knowledge to the empirical and the logical.
  • Advocated a revised correspondence theory of truth (empirical realism).

Scholasticus, Honorius
Schopenhauer, Arthur
Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer

  • Wrote The World as Will and Idea (or Representation).
  • Voluntaristic idealism.
  • Reality is a blind, irrational will, objectifying itself as man and the phenomena of his world.
  • This will is Kant's "thing-in-itself" but can be introspectively and intuitively known.
  • In man, the will becomes self-conscious and presents to itself by construction a phenomenal world of ideas or representations.
  • This world is ordered in terms of the principle of causality, which is necessary to the conception of phenomena.
  • Mind is a manifestation of will which is self-conscious and capable of understanding the forms of existence (i.e., the forms by which will objectifies itself).
  • Phenomena appear to be plural, but in reality manifests the one universal will.
  • Phenomena appear to be orderly and good, but in reality hide an irrational and evil will.
  • The world as will representing itself to itself develops through several stages:
    1. the ideas that limit objectification to particular things
    2. a final objectification as human consciousness and its world of phenomena as representations.
  • Ordinary knowledge is the activity of the will.
  • Knowledge of the ideas bypasses this activity and turns the will on itself and its ideas or limitations; hence knowledge of the ideas no longer further objectifies will.
  • Art penetrates the representations to the ideas, thus revealing reality.
  • Tragedy, e.g., reveals the blindness and necessity of will.
  • Music is the most revealing and liberating art, for it reveals the will itself
Schweitzer, Albert
Albert Schweitzer

Albert Schweitzer

  • German theologian, musician, and medical missionary
  • had earned doctorates in theology, medicine, and music
  • received Nobel Peace Prize in 1952
  • said Jesus mistakenly believed the end of the world was near
  • wrote
    1. The Quest of the Historical Jesus
    2. My Life and Thought
  • lived sacrificially in medical work in Gabon, Africa

  • a radical mystical Reformation group begun by Schwenkfeld Von Ossig Caspar.
  • See the Anabaptists with whom they share some distinctive characteristics.
  • descriptive generalizations having predictive value.
  • Unlike theories, they are discovered rather than devised.
Sclater, John Robert Paterson
  • United Church Toronto preacher
Scofield, Cyrus Ingerson
C. I. Scofield

C. I. Scofield

  • US Congregational pastor
  • trained as a lawyer
  • served in Confederate army
  • influenced by Brookes
  • founded Central American Mission
  • popularized fundamentalism and dispensationalism
  • helped found Philadelphia School of the Bible
  • wrote
    1. Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth
    2. notes to Scofield Reference Bible

Scott, Thomas
  • Anglican converted from Unitarianism
  • wrote popular Bible commentary
Scroggie, William Graham
William Graham Scroggie

William Graham Scroggie

  • British Baptist
  • active in Keswick movement
  • wrote many books

Seabury, Samuel
Samuel Seabury

Samuel Seabury

  • US Episc. bishop

Seiss, Joseph Augustus
Joseph Seiss

Joseph Seiss

  • US Lutheran preacher
  • wrote commentary on Revelation

Selwyn, George Augustus
  • Anglican first bishop of New Zealand
  • The study of the meanings of terms and expressions
  • The general theory of signs and their applications as developed by Peirce and important for scientific empiricism
Semler, Johann Salomo
  • German Lutheran father of higher criticism
Semple, Gabriel
  • Scottish field preacher
  • jailed for being a "traitor"
(4 BC-AD 65)


  • An early form of empiricism which taught that all knowledge derives from sensations passively received by the knower.
  • Sensations are relative and unreliable because they are modifications of the knower and no more a part of the world than is the pinprick a part of the pin.
Sextus Empiricus
(c 300)
Sextus Empiricus

Sextus Empiricus

Shapiro, Harold T.
Harold T. Shapiro

Harold T. Shapiro

Sharp, Granville
Granville Sharp

Granville Sharp

  • associated with Claphan sect
  • helped found Sierra Leone
  • led to emancipation of slaves in England.
  • Also known for Greek rule names after him.

Sharp, James
James Sharp

James Sharp

  • Church of Scotland archbishop of St. Andrew's
  • betrayed the Covenanters

Shedd, William Greenough Thayer
  • Conservative US Calvinist theologian
  • taught at Union (NY)
  • wrote
    1. Dogmatic Theology (3 vol)
    2. The Doctrine of Endless Punishment
Sheen, Fulton John
Fulton John Sheen

Fulton John Sheen

  • US Roman Catholic taught philosophy
  • radio and TV preacher

Shepard, Thomas
  • fled to New England to escape Archbishop Laud
  • pastor at Cambridge, Mass.
  • wrote The Sincere Convert
Sheppard, Hugh Richard
Hugh Sheppard

Hugh Sheppard

  • Anglican preacher
  • radio preacher
  • pacifist

Shields, Thomas Todhunter
Thomas Shields

Thomas Shields

  • Canadian Baptist pastored Jarvis Street Baptist Church in Toronto for 40 years
  • attacked Romanism and liberalism

Shoemaker, Samuel Moor
Samuel Shoemaker

Samuel Shoemaker

  • US Episc. preacher
  • a founder of Alcoholics Anonymous



  • Mathematician, philosopher
  • wrote Methods of Ethics

Silva, Moises
Moises Silva

Moises Silva

  • Prof. of N.T. at Westminster Theological Seminary (Phil., PA)
  • wrote
    1. New Testament Survey
    2. Philippians
    3. Biblical Words and Their Meaning

Simeon, Charles
Charles Simeon

Charles Simeon

  • Evangelical Anglican pastored church in Cambridge for 50 years
  • sent out Henry Martyn
  • published 21 vol. of Bible sermon outlines

Simons, Menno
Menno Simons

Menno Simons

  • Roman Catholic priest
  • became Anabaptist leader
  • left Roman Catholic because of transubstantiation doctrine
  • emphasized peace, non-resistance, prohibition of oaths and separation of church and state
  • persecuted
  • followers called Mennonites

Simpson, Albert Benjamin
A. B. Simpson

A. B. Simpson

  • US Presbyterian pastor
  • founder of Christian and Missionary Alliance
  • established Nyack Bible College as first Bible College in North America
  • wrote many books on Spirit-filled life, healing, and missions

Simpson, Matthew
Matthew Simpson

Matthew Simpson

  • US medical doctor who became a Methodist preacher who preached to Abraham Lincoln
  • against slavery
  • pastored Presbyterian church in Washington DC
  • President of Garrett Bible Institute
  • wrote Lectures on Preaching

Singh, Sadhu Sundar
Sadhu Sundar Singh

Sadhu Sundar Singh

  • Anglican Indian Christian leader
  • mystic

  • A view promoted by Joseph Fletcher that the good and right thing to do depends upon the particular situation.
  • It might be bad to do a certain thing in one context, but good or acceptable in another.
Sizoo, Joseph Richard
  • US Reformed
  • professor
  • missionary
  • Army chaplain
  • President of New Brunswick Seminary in NJ
Smellie, Alexander
  • Scotland Free Church pastor
Smith, George Adam
  • British OT liberal scholar
Smith, Hannah Whitall
Hanna Whitall Smith

Hanna Whitall Smith

  • US Quaker
  • emphasized inward rest and outward victory
  • popularized doctrine of sanctification as a second work of grace

Smith, Henry
  • British Puritan preacher
Smith, Henry Preserved
  • suspended for heresy for defending Briggs
  • wrote
    1. The Religion of Israel
    2. Essays in Biblical Interpretation
Smith, Rodney ("Gipsy")
Gipsy Smith

Gipsy Smith

  • British Wesleyan evangelist and singer

Smith, Samuel S.
Samuel S. Smith

Samuel S. Smith

Smith, William Robertson
William Robertson Smith

William Robertson Smith

  • Scotland OT teacher at Free Church College at Aberdeen
  • dismissed for views undermining inspiration of Scripture
  • later became editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • professor of Arabic
  • head librarian at Cambridge University

Smyth, John
(d 1612)
John Smyth

John Smyth

  • British Baptist
  • wrote Old Faith and New Life
  • looked for compromise between science and the Bible

Socinus, Faustus
Faustus Socinus

Faustus Socinus

  • Italian Protestant non-Calvinistic reformer
  • systematized rationalistic Christianity which turned into Unitarianism
  • opposed orthodox view of original sin, human depravity, and justification by faith

Socinus, Laelius
  • Italian lawyer
  • forerunner of Unitarianism
  • uncle of Faustus
  • says religion is an aspect of totemism for which God becomes the expression of a deification of the group (Durkheim).
  • Moral beliefs are not the same in different cultural groups.
  • What is right in one culture is not necessarily right in another.
Sockman, Ralph Washington
  • US Methodist preacher on National Radio Pulpit
(c 470-399 BC)


  • Greek philosopher
  • founded philosophy
  • Plato was his student
  • Agreed with the Sophists that knowledge of reality is uncertain.
  • But moral knowledge is possible: "Virtue is knowledge," and there is virtue.
  • Moral knowledge is universal (moral absolutism).
  • Universal principles open to reason are those moral concepts in which all particular ideas agree.
  • The Socratic method is dialectical and inductive: universals are derived from particulars by noting differences in identities and identities in differences.


  • Also called Reconciliationism.
  • Causality is a descriptive, empirical generalization about the world or a useful assumption for scientific investigation.
  • It is not a priori or prescriptive.
  • Causality is not compulsion, although compulsion is one kind of causality.
  • The question is not whether moral choices are caused but how.
  • Free choices and acts are uncompelled choices and acts consciously determined by interests, goals, etc., by the self or one's character.
  • There can be no freedom, i.e., self-determination, without determinism (compatibilism).
  • Responsibility is related to the degree of conscious self-determination or control by the individual.
  • Avoidable acts are free; unavoidable (inadvertent) acts are not free.
  • Unlike hard determinism, the cause of moral choices is settled later and by human character.
  • Responsibility is limited to what a person will choose, given the kind of person he is.
  • The agent is responsible, e.g., to the extent that he could have been a different kind of person.
  • Praise, blame, reward, and punishment are justified only to the extent that they change a person or his behavior.
  • Freedom is the possession of the requisite power to act and the absence of interference at any of these points: possible desires actual desires decisions acts.
  • Also see
  • I alone exist because I cannot know a world beyond myself and my ideas.
  • This view leads to the Egocentric Predicament
Sorley, William Ritchie
  • professor at Cardiff, Aberdeen, Cambridge
  • wrote Moral Values and the Idea of God
  • ethical emphasized
  • Philosophy of Spirit
  • spirit is ultimate reality but not same as Hegelian thought; man not only a purely physical being but also a spiritual one; all things (even inanimate things) have a kind of spiritual life of their own; emphasized on spirit as the agent of action, rather than merely thought; strong empirical emphasis
  • Study of Salvation
South, Robert
  • Anglican preacher
  • The ideal space abstracted from perceptual space, having the properties of unity, isomorphism (i.e., homogeneity), continuity, infinity, and three dimensions (i.e., the objective space of classical physics).
  • The subjective and qualitative sense of the relationship of entities arising from the organization of all perceptions.
  • The four-dimensional continuum of relativity physics, motionless and changeless, for motion and change are relative to particular physical realities taken in terms of an individual space and time.
Spellman, Francis Joseph
Francis Spellman

Francis Spellman

  • US Roman Catholic cardinal

Spencer, Herbert
Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer

  • held to evolution in human society.
  • Wrote First Principles.
  • The world is a vast evolutionary process of matter, motion, and force.
  • "Matter, Motion, and Force are not themselves ultimate realities, but represent the limits of knowledge" as modes of the unknowable.
  • The redistribution of matter, motion, and force proceeds from the relatively indefinite state of homogeneity to the relatively heterogeneous integration and differentiation of matter.
  • The principle of evolution applies to all aspects of existence from cosmology to culture.
  • Knowledge of the source of evolution (the Unknowable) is not forthcoming (agnosticism).

Spener, Philipp Jakob
Philipp Spener

Philipp Spener

  • German Lutheran pastor
  • founder of Pietism
  • wrote Pia Desideria ["Pious Desires"]

Spinoza, Baruch (Benedict)
Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza

  • Dutch Jewish philosopher
  • wrote
    1. Ethics Based on Geometry
    2. Theologico-Political Treatise
  • Reality is Infinite Substance or God.
  • "By God, I mean a being absolutely infinite a substance consisting in infinite attributes."
  • From the human standpoint, two attributes are intelligible: consciousness (mind) and extension (matter).
  • mind and body, thought and motion, are parallel; the causal succession of physical events is paralleled by the logical succession of ideas (parallelism).
  • God and the universe are one (pantheism).
  • God is immanent cause not creator.
  • All events are interdependent and necessary (determinism).
  • "The whole endless series of bodies with their divisions, forms, and motions, are the modes of extension (matter), just as the endless series of minds with their ideas and volitions are the modes of consciousness (mind)."
  • Spinoza's monism attempts the reconciliation of idealism and materialism.
  • He is a rationalist in epistemology; pantheist in metaphysics.

Spurgeon, Charles Haddon
Charles Spurgeon

Charles Spurgeon

  • British Baptist preacher in London's Metropolitan Tabernacle which seated 5000
  • self-taught
  • Calvinistic

Stalker, James
James Stalker

James Stalker

  • Scotland United Free church
  • professor
  • friend of Moody
  • interest in social concerns
  • wrote on life of Christ and Paul

Stanley, Arthur P.
Arthur P. Stanley

Arthur P. Stanley

  • Anglican dean of Westminster Abbey
  • liberal

Staupitz, Johannes von
Johannes von Staupitz

Johannes von Staupitz

  • Roman Catholic
  • encouraged Luther to study for a doctorate
  • but unable to modify Luther's position.

Stearns, Shubal
Stidger, William Leroy
  • US Methodist preacher
  • wrote Preaching Out of the Overflow.
Stier, Rudolf Ewald
  • German Lutheran preacher
  • mystic
Stillingfleet, Edward
Edward Stillingfleet

Edward Stillingfleet

  • Anglican bishop
  • chaplain to the king

Stoddard, Solomon
  • US Congregational preacher
  • grandfather of Jonathan Edwards
  • believed in regenerating power of Lord's Supper
  • advocated Half-Way Covenant
  • Wrote A Guide to Christ
Stone, John Timothy
  • US Presbyterian pastor
  • President of McCormick Seminary in Chicago
Storrs, Richard S.
Richard S. Storrs

Richard S. Storrs

  • US Congregational
  • graduate of Amherst College
  • began as a lawyer
  • fundamentalist
  • preached in one church for 54 years

Straton, John Roach
John Roach Straton

John Roach Straton

  • US Baptist preacher
  • fundamentalist leader

Strauss, David Friedrich
David Strauss

David Strauss

  • German liberal theologian
  • radical view of life of Jesus
  • used Hegel's philosophy to interpret Christianity
  • Mythological Quest
  • wrote
    1. Life of Jesus
    2. The Old and the New Faith
  • Abandoned Christianity for "religion of humanity."

Strong, Augustus Hopkins
A. H. Strong

A. H. Strong

  • US Baptist pastor, theologian and educator
  • wrote
    1. Systematic Theology

  • Because knowledge is confined to ideas in the mind of the knower, it is impossible to get beyond these ideas to an objective or material reality separate from and independent of the knower.
  • See Axiological subjectivism
  • That which makes a thing what it is and not something else, i.e., essence (ousia) in Greek philosophy.
  • Aristotle said essence equals substance.
  • Aristotle said substance is the inherent essence or cause of a particular thing, i.e., the unity of its form and matter.
  • In scholasticism, substance is that which exists and persists independent of any other being.
  • In Cartesianism, substance is that which exists independent of any other being.
  • Infinite substance is God; finite substance is mind and matter.
  • In Spinoza, there is only infinite substance (God) and its modes.
  • In Kantianism, substance becomes a subjective concept of the mind arising from the necessary organizing activity of Mind in connection with the data of experience.
  • In British empiricism, substance is essentially the systematic or coherent organization of the specific qualities of experience. As such, it does not exist or is unknowable.
  • The highest good.
  • All values must be defined in terms of this ultimate value.
  • All aims must lead to this single, ultimate aim
Sunday, William "Billy" Ashley
Billy Sunday

Billy Sunday

  • He was a professional baseball player
  • became US Presbyterian evangelist with highly sensational dramatic preaching style
  • advocated temperance
  • opposed theory of evolution

  • Impersonal name for God
  • A factor of Darwin's Principle of Natural selection.
  • Better-adapted organisms survive, less-adapted perish.
  • Evolution is eliminative rather than creative.
Swedenborg, Emanuel
Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg

  • Swedish scientist and engineer turned philosopher and religious thinker who was influenced by dreams and visions
  • started Church of the New Jerusalem
  • Swedenborgianism follows from his view:
    1. Neo-Platonic idea that universe and man not created by God but emanated from Him
    2. monopersonal Trinity
    3. example theory of atonement
    4. belief in second chance during intermediate state

Swete, Henry Barclay
Henry Barclay Swete

Henry Barclay Swete

  • Anglican professor
  • taught at King's College (London) and Cambridge University
  • used conservative critical methods
  • wrote on Holy Spirit

Swing, David
  • US Presbyterian pastor
  • tried for heresy, but acquitted
  • Logic employing special or artificial symbols for the structures of propositions and arguments in the interest of clarity, precision, and the ease of reasoning.
  • The first three New Testament books: Matthew, Mark, and Luke (but not John).
  • These are studied together and harmonized.
  • The study of the structural nature of statements and their interrelationships