Kaftan, Julius Wilhelm Martin
  • professor at Basel and Berlin
  • wrote The Truth of the Christian Religion
  • Ritschlian
Kagawa, Toyohiko
  • Japanese evangelist and social worker.
Kahler, Martin
  • German theologian
  • distinguished between Historie and Geschichte
  • distinguished between Jesus of history and Christ of faith
  • influenced Bultmann
Kalthoff, Albert
  • Lutheran pastor
  • wrote Die Entstehung des Christentums [The origin of Christianity]
  • influenced by Marxist ideas
  • Christianity began as a rise of a society where Paul joined the ideas of Judaism with Roman/Greek philosophy.
Kant, Immanuel
Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant

  • German philosopher
  • tried to unite rationalism and empiricism
  • wrote
    1. Religion Within the Bounds of Reason
    2. Critique of Pure Reason
    3. Critique of Practical Reason
    4. Critique of Judgment
  • Regarding his theory of reality: reality as "thing-in-itself" (Ding an sich) or as noumena is unknowable.
  • Noumena present themselves to minds as phenomena which are knowable.
  • Phenomena are the joint product of mind and sense data.
  • Phenomena are possible only because mind is capable of ordering them in space and time.
  • Mind knows only what it orders in space and time according to the principle of causality as phenomena or experience.
  • Mind cannot know what it is as "thing-in-itself."
  • Mind knows only phenomena.

  • The mutually contradictory ideas of metaphysics which Kant used to illustrate the impossibility of knowing the ultimate nature of the world.
  • a form of Phenomenalism.
  • Called critical or transcendental idealism.
  • Knowledge is the joint product of mind (knower) and phenomena (sense data).
  • Phenomena arise from noumena.
  • Only phenomena (sense data) are knowable as factual or scientific knowledge because the mind possesses the requisite faculties that make possible the experience and the organization of this knowledge.
  • See Neo-Kantianism
Käsemann, Ernst
Ernst Käsemann

Ernst Käsemann

  • wrote
    1. Essays on New Testament Themes
    2. Jesus Means Freedom
  • post-Bultmannian
  • new search for historical Jesus.

Keach, Benjamin
Benjamin Keach

Benjamin Keach

  • British Baptist preacher
  • introduced congregational singing into his services
  • Wrote Exposition of the Parables

Keble, John
John Keble

John Keble

  • a founder of Tractarian or Oxford movement
  • friend of John Henry Newman
  • wrote The Christian Year

Kelman, John
Kempis, Thomas a
Thomas a Kempis

Thomas a Kempis

  • German monk
  • wrote The Imitation of Christ
  • emphasized withdraw from attractions of the world

Kennedy, Gerald
  • US Methodist
  • Also called Kenosis View
  • The Second Person of the Trinity exchanged His deity for humanity
  • At the incarnation, the Lord was stripped of all His divine attributes to the level of human attributes
  • Name of the view comes from the Greek word "ekenosen" [He emptied Himself] found in Phil. 2:7. Thus Christ emptied Himself of "the form of God" (Phil. 2:6)
  • Jesus is not God and man simultaneously, but successively. He is God, then man, then God again.
  • This view is based on a false assumption that divine attributes are intensified human ones.
Kepler, Thomas
  • US Quaker
  • Unlike natural theology which reasons from the facts of the world to God.
  • Knowledge of God is initiated by God in revelation.
Ketcham, Robert
  • US Baptist preacher
  • founded General Association of Regular Baptist Churches that split from Northern (now American) Baptist Convention.
Kierkegaard, Soren Aabye


  • Danish existentialist philosopher and theologian
  • attacked organized Christianity in Denmark
  • grandfather of neo-orthodoxy
  • wrote
    1. The Concept of Dread
    2. Philosophical Fragments
    3. Either/Or
    4. Fear and Trembling
    5. Concluding Unscientific Postscript
  • "The individual is the category through which this age, all history, the human race as a whole must pass."
  • The particular existing individual is the primary category.
  • The real is the particular (not the rational or universal, as in Hegel).
  • Kierkegaard's opposition to Hegel is shown in his theory that the existing particular self is prior to any concept of a universal self.
  • For Hegel, each self is an instance of the universal by virtue of which the particular is a self (i.e., what is thought to be a self).
  • Essence (what is thought and is universal) precedes existence (i.e., what is concretely lived by the particular subject).
  • Thought is the universal essence of things in Hegel; Kierkegaard reverses the priority of thought and existence.
  • For him, to think is to act.
  • To think about death meaningfully, for example, is to experience and to accept the finitude of one's own particular existence not to refer to the general concept of death.
  • It is to know that one must die his own death.
  • Conceptual thinking is abstract, impersonal, and passive; existential thinking is concrete, personal, and passionate (i.e., subjective). Existential.

  • All physical realities are explainable in terms of atomic matter in motion (materialism and reductionism).
  • Forerunner of modern particle theories.
  • Holds five principles:
    1. Kinetic principle
    2. principle of causality
    3. principle of uniformity
    4. Principle of quantification
    5. Principle of Conservation
King, Henry Churchill
Henry King

Henry King

  • professor at Oberlin College, Ohio
  • wrote
    1. The Ethics of Jesus
    2. Reconstruction in Theology
  • Ritschlian

King, Martin Luther, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • Black US pastor and civil rights leader
  • organized Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • advocated non-violent action against racial segregation
  • applied Gandhi's "civil disobedience" philosophy to the race problems
  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
  • assassinated

Kingsley, Charles
Charles Kingsley

Charles Kingsley

  • Anglican pastor
  • social reformer
  • tried to integrate Christianity and science
  • evolutionist
  • against asceticism
  • against Oxford movement
  • liberal but became conservative in his later years
  • wrote novels

Kirk, Edward N.
  • US Presbyterian pastor in Boston for 30 years.
Kirkland, John Thornton
John Kirkland

John Kirkland

  • US Congregational liberal preacher of morals and ethics
  • Unitarian leanings
  • President of Harvard University

Kirwen, Walter Blake
  • Church of Ireland preacher.
  • Bertrand Russell distinguished the kinds of knowledge we have into two categories. Some things we know because we are personally involved with it (i.e., acquaintance) and those things which we know because we can describe its features (i.e., description)
  • Bertrand Russell distinguished the kinds of knowledge we have into two categories. Some things we know because we are personally involved with it (i.e., acquaintance) and those things which we know because we can describe its features (i.e., description)
Knox, John
John Knox

John Knox

  • Scottish Reformer
  • established Calvinism in Scotland
  • wrote
    1. The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women
    2. History of the Reformation of Religion Within the Realm of Scotland
  • Influenced by Thomas Gwilliam and George Wishart
  • spent 19 months as a galley slave

Knox, Ronald A.
Ronald A. Knox

Ronald A. Knox

  • British Roman Catholic preacher who began as an evangelical Anglican.

Kohler, Wolfgang
Wolfgang Kohler

Wolfgang Kohler

  • Wrote Gestalt Psychology.
  • The mind is the organized and dynamic structure of the whole of experience and behavior.
  • Mind is "the structural correspondence of excitory fields in the brain with the experienced contents of consciousness" (isomorphism).
  • Mental phenomena occur and interact in fields.
  • There is "a psycho-physiological correspondence between experienced order in space and time and the underlying dynamical context of physiological processes."
  • Mind is therefore the form or function of body.
Koller, Charles
  • US Baptist preacher.
  • Wrote: How to Preach Without Notes
Krummacher, Friedrich
  • German Reformed leader
  • wrote
    1. Elijah the Tishbite
    2. The Suffering Saviour: Meditations on the Last Days of Christ
Küng, Hans
Hans Küng

Hans Küng

  • Swiss Roman Catholic theologian
  • wrote The Church and Justification
  • advocated reforms adopted by Vatican II
  • said true Roman Catholic view of justification is same as protestant view
  • against doctrine of infallibility of pope
  • deposed as Roman Catholic teacher

Kuyper, Abraham
Abraham Kuyper

Abraham Kuyper

  • Dutch Reformed theologian, pastor, politician (Dutch prime minister)
  • broke with liberal school
  • formulated classical Dutch Calvinistic theology
  • emphasized topical not expository preaching
  • Wrote The Problem of Poverty