Rabanus, Maurus
(c 776-856)
Maurus Rabanus

Maurus Rabanus

  • Archbishop of Mainz
  • Benedictine

Rahner, Karl
Karl Rahner

Karl Rahner

  • Liberal Roman Catholic theologian
  • wrote Theological Investigations
  • influenced Vatican II
  • people of God are also those who do not have any formal connection with the church.

Raikes, Robert
Robert Raikes

Robert Raikes

  • was a newspaper publisher
  • popularized the Sunday school
  • encouraged by John Wesley

Rainy, Robert
Robert Rainy

Robert Rainy

  • Church of Scotland preacher
  • taught church history

Rashdall, Hastings
Hastings Rashdall

Hastings Rashdall

  • British liberal theologian
  • wrote
    1. The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology
    2. Philosophy and Religion
    3. The Theory of Good and Evil
  • theological Personal Idealist
  • emphasized individual minds, not one great mind
  • like C. Webb

  • The conclusions of reason are contradictory or paradoxical
  • in contrast to Empiricism, believes that some ideas or concepts are independent of experience and that some truth is known by reason alone.
Rauschenbusch, Walter
Walter Rauschenbusch

Walter Rauschenbusch

  • US Baptist pastor
  • father of social gospel
  • taught at Rochester theologian Seminary
  • tried to reach those in Hell's Kitchen
  • wrote
    1. Christianity and the Social Crisis
    2. A Theology for the Social Gospel

Ravaisson, Felix
  • Philosopher
Redpath, Alan
  • Scottish Baptist preacher
Rees, Henry
Rees, Morgan
  • Welsh preacher
  • encouraged founding of Sunday Schools
  • promoted religious liberty
  • moved to US
Rees, Paul
  • US Covenant preacher
Rees, William
William Rees

William Rees

  • Welsh Congregational preacher

Reichenbach, Hans
Hans Reichenbach

Hans Reichenbach

  • wrote Experience and Prediction
  • no certainty in knowing anything about the world because knowledge of the world involves predictions of the future
  • in life, we are all gamblers

Reid, Thomas
Thomas Reid

Thomas Reid

  • Father of Scotland commonsense realism

Reimarus, Hermann Samuel
  • German rationalistic theologian who advocated a religion of pure reason
  • initiated quest for the historical Jesus
Reinach, Salomon
  • archaeologist
  • Positivist
  • Naturalist
  • wrote
    1. Orpheus
    2. A Short History of Christianity
Reinhard, Franz Volkmar
Franz Reinhard

Franz Reinhard

  • German Lutheran preacher
  • produced 39 volumes of sermons

  • The study of matter and energy and their relationship which was developed after Einstein's relativity theories.
  • Contrasted with Classical physics
  • A mathematical theory advanced by Einstein wherein space and time are no longer considered as absolute but as parts of a four-dimensional space-time continuum and relative to the particular coordinate system of the observer.
  • God is a dimension of quality of existence (or being, reality, etc.).
  • "The ultimate of the act of faith and the ultimate that is meant in the act of faith are one and the same" (Tillich).
  • God is your participation in the ground or depth of your own being.
  • Faith is not a kind of knowledge.
  • Knowing is confined to science.
  • "Faith is the total and centered act (commitment) of the personal self" (Tillich).
  • Except for assertions like "God is Being Itself," all assertions about God are symbolic, including the assertion "God is dead."
  • Statements about God are about your experience and relation to existence (or being).
  • For example, "God exists" means "I experience a depth in my being when I respond to reality with ultimate concern" (Tillich).
  • It says "Religion is man's response to ultimate concerns in terms of the ultimate" (Tillich).
  • Includes
  • There is no supernatural, personal deity, nor ground of being.
  • Religion is the quest for a more worthwhile life.
  • The ultimate value is "all the natural forces and conditions including man and human association that promote the growth of the ideal and that further its realization" (Dewey).
  • Santayana pictures religion as the "symbolic expression of highest ideals."
  • Russell urges man to develop his highest ideals and aspirations in the face of cosmic indifference.
  • Julian Huxley advocates the full implementation of evolution both biological and cultural for human good.
  • Teilhard de Chardin finds the God hypothesis necessary in order to explain the consistent movement of evolution toward the production of ever higher levels of consciousness in what he calls an "irreversibly personalizing universe."
Renan, Joseph Ernest
Joseph Ernest Renan

Joseph Ernest Renan

  • French historian of religion
  • origins of Christianity were legends

Renouvier, Charles Bernard
Charles Bernard Renouvier

Charles Bernard Renouvier

  • French philosopher

Renwick, James
  • Last Scottish Covenanter martyr
  • Ideas represent or correspond to the objects of an independent world.
Rice, Merton Stacher
  • US Methodist preacher
Ridderbos, Herman
Herman Ridderbos

Herman Ridderbos

  • wrote The Coming of the Kingdom

Ridley, Nicholas
(c 1500-1555)
Nicholas Ridley

Nicholas Ridley

  • British Reformer
  • chaplain to Cranmer and Henry VIII
  • bishop of Rochester and London
  • helped produce 1st and 2nd Book of Common Prayer
  • burned at the stake with Hugh Latimer

Ritschl, Albrecht Benjamin
Albrecht Ritschl

Albrecht Ritschl

  • German theologian
  • liberal
  • emphasized value judgments instead of theoretical doctrines
  • emphasized ethical and social responsibilities of Christians
  • rejected metaphysics
  • wrote
    1. The Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation
    2. Theology and Metaphysics

Roberts, Evan
Evan Roberts

Evan Roberts

Roberts, Robert
Roberts, William
Robertson, Frederick William
  • Anglican pastor with 2-point sermons
  • memorized most of NT in both Greek and English
Robinson, Ezekiel Gilman
Ezekiel Robinson

Ezekiel Robinson

  • Baptist preacher
  • President of Brown University and Rochester Seminary
  • liberal
  • edited Christian Review

Robinson, James Herman
  • Black US Presbyterian preacher
Robinson, John
(c 1575-1625)
  • English Separatist pastor
Rogers, John
(c 1500-1555)
  • British Reformer
  • translated Bible with Tyndale
  • published Matthew's Bible in 1537
  • burned at the stake by Queen (Bloody) Mary
Rollock, Robert
  • first principal and professor of theology at Edinburgh University
  • wrote several commentaries
Romaine, William
(c 1050-1122)
Ross, W.D. [William Davis]
  • Critic of utilitarian views
  • wrote The Right and the Good
Rough, John
  • Scottish Reformer
  • burned at the stake
Rowland, Daniel
(c 1713-1790)
Daniel Rowland

Daniel Rowland

  • pastor
  • helped found Welsh Calvinistic Methodist church

Royce, Josiah
Josiah Royce

Josiah Royce

  • US professor at Harvard
  • wrote
    1. The Problem of Christianity
    2. The Religious Aspect of Philosophy
    3. The World and the Individual
  • Absolute Idealism

Ruchrath, John (or Rucherat)
  • AKA: Johannes Ruchrath von Wesel
  • German Roman Catholic whose views influenced Luther
  • against indulgences, festivals of fasting, pilgrimages, priestly celibacy, transubstantiation
  • held Scripture above pope
  • elect are saved wholly through the grace of God
  • arrested and deposed for his views
(c 345-410)
  • formed the Devil ransom theory of atonement
  • Love based upon a standard such as the Bible
  • Moral action based upon one's duty prescribed in some standard such as the Bible
  • Moral action based upon the intended outcome as a result of obeying some standard like the Bible
Russell, Bertrand Arthur William
Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Russell

  • New Realist
  • popularist
  • wrote
    1. History of Western Philosophy
    2. Mysticism and Logic
    3. An Outline of Philosophy
    4. Our Knowledge of the External World
    5. Analysis of Matter
  • Reality consists in a plurality of events.
  • Mental events are not distinguished from material events.
  • Sense data relate both to objects they constitute as physical facts and to the minds that perceive them as mental facts.
  • Sense data are subjective (i.e., they do not exist unperceived).
  • Yet "there really are objects other than ourselves and our sense data which have an existence not dependent on our perceiving them."
  • These objects are "perceptual objects" or "logical constructions" rather than physical being as such.

Rutherford, Samuel
Samuel Rutherford

Samuel Rutherford

  • Scottish Presbyterian pastor
  • exiled from his church
  • wrote the devotional classic Letters of Samuel Rutherford

Ruysbroeck, Jan Van
Jan Van Ruysbroeck

Jan Van Ruysbroeck

  • Flemish medieval mystic
  • Wrote The Spiritual Espousals
  • accused of pantheism
  • He stressed humility, charity, flight from the world, meditation on the life and passion of Christ, and abandonment to the divine will.

Ryle, Gilbert
Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle

  • Wrote The Concept of Mind and Dilemmas.
  • Oxford School of analysis, ordinary language philosophy, behaviorism.
  • "Philosophical arguments are intended not to increase what we know about minds, but to rectify the logical geography of the knowledge which we already possess."
  • The "logical geography" of one concept needing rectification is the "official doctrine" of the "dogma of the Ghost in the Machine," i.e., historically, Descartes's beliefs concerning mind and body.
  • This "dogma" arises from a mistaken analysis of ordinary expression about, e.g., what the "mind" or "body" does, etc.
  • The specific error is the category mistake, which consists in "the presentation of facts belonging to one category in the idioms appropriate to another" or in the allocation of "concepts to logical types to which they do not belong."
  • Concerning the mind-body problem, Ryle holds that all statements that refer to minds are really statements about current bodily behavior or hypothetical statements about predicted bodily behavior.

Ryle, John Charles
John Charles Ryle

John Charles Ryle

  • Anglican bishop
  • wrote Expository Thoughts on the Gospels